Chỉ với một chút cố gắng, những chuyến du lịch bụi sẽ trở nên vô cùng vui vẻ. Một chuyến đi được chuẩn bị kỹ càng sẽ cho phép bạn cắm trại tại những địa điểm xinh đẹp và không cần phải đối mặt với đám đông không mong muốn đi kèm tại các địa điểm cắm trại. Nếu bạn muốn trải nghiệm cảm giác đi bộ trong rừng và tự tìm cách quay ra, bạn có thể học cách lên kế hoạch cho chuyến đi của mình một cách an toàn và kỹ lưỡng. Tìm hiểu xem bạn cần phải mang gì, làm thế nào để lên kế hoạch cho một chuyến đi hiệu quả và giữ an toàn cho nhóm của mình.
Phần 1 của 3:
Lên Kế hoạch cho Chuyến đi
Thử đi bộ đường dài mà không mang theo dụng cụ, ngoại trừ nước, đồ ăn nhẹ, bản đồ khu vực và một đôi giày thích hợp. Đi bộ 2 hoặc 3km cùng với một vài người bạn và chơi vui vẻ.
If you like that, try going on a longer hike, for several miles of somewhat rougher terrain. If you like that, take your bag with you and see how you enjoy it. Gradually build up to a series trip. Nếu bạn thích, thử đi bộ dài hơn, vài kilomet trên địa hình khó khăn hơn. Nếu bạn thích, xách ba lô lên và xem bạn sẽ tận hưởng nó như thế nào. Dần dần
Pick an appropriate time of year for that destination, as well. Some destinations are very crowded at certain times of year, or around holidays, while others are inappropriate for backpacking at certain times of the year. It’d be bad to head out to the desert in the middle of the summer if you’re a first-timer.
It’s also usually good to avoid areas with bears during bear-heavy seasons, which will vary from region to region.
Yosemite National Park, CA
Joshua Tree, CA
Denali National Park, AK
White Mountain National Forest, NH
Olympic National Park, WA
Zion National Park, UT
Glacier National Park, MT
Big Bend National Park, TX
Loop hikes, which follow a long circle that will allow you to end up back where you started.
Out and back hikes, during which you’ll hike to a specific destination and then retrace your steps backward.
End to end hikes usually require leaving a car at both ends, or arranging pick-up at your eventual destination. This is only typically done for very long hikes that go through multiple areas.
Novices and weekend warriors should plan on hiking no more than 6–12 miles (9.7–19.3 km) per day of a given hike. In relatively tough terrain, that’ll be more than enough.
Experienced hikers in good shape can sometimes do 10–25 miles (16–40 km) per day, depending on terrain, but it’s usually best to not push it.
At most parks, you’ll have to display a permit on your car while you hike, and something on your tent, or bag, as well. The local regulations will be explained to you when you check in to the ranger’s office upon your arrival.
Most National Parks and other public lands will also have guidelines specific to their environments, at the time of year you’re camping. For example, Yosemite National Park requires the use of bear-proof canisters for food.
Never, ever, leave a fire unattended. Do not light a fire unless you have enough water available to extinguish it thoroughly. As a precaution, clear a 15-foot (~5m) circular area around your fire, to prevent the wind from igniting any materials outside of your fire pit.
Phần 2 của 3:
Packing for a Hike
Backpacking bags are sold at most sporting goods stores, and are matched to your body size and height. It’s a good idea to go be fitted for one, to make sure it fits you properly.
Your backpack should have enough space for some food and water, a first aid kit, rain gear, sun gear, flashlight or headlamp and batteries, a tent and sleeping bag, even though you might not need all that for a group hike.
Never go out for a multi-day trip with nothing but sandals, or a flimsy pair of sneakers. Sometimes, tennis shoes can be great, lightweight, and perfect for hiking in some environments, but you want to make sure you’ve got something sturdy enough for the terrain you’ll encounter.
Mountains are notorious for volatile and quick-changing weather systems. Even if it is 90 degrees when you head out, pack a light bag with rain gear, or at least a coat. You also need a hat, gloves, sock liners and socks, underwear, lightweight pants and shorts and good sturdy hiking boots.
Try to bring synthetic, wool, or down fabrics, which will keep you warm and dry quickly, instead of cotton.
Bring plenty of socks. You’ll be walking a lot, and it’s important to keep your feet clean and dry on the trip.
It can be helpful for everyone to be responsible for their own snacks but to have a communal dinner. Bring high-calorie and high-protein snacks, like nuts and dried fruit, which can help to fuel you and get you moving. Good ol’ raisins and peanuts.
Bring at least one:
Cooking pot or pan
Consider duplicating essential items, like:
First aid kit
Copy of the map
Lighter or matches
Clean out your tent, if you haven’t since the last time you used it. It’s important to get rid of any debris and especially food particles that might remain in the tent, if you’ve not used it in a while. Set it up and let it air out before you pack it again.
Always get new lighters, new camp fuel, and check the batteries of any flashlights or other items that can fail in the wilderness and leave you struggling.
National and State Park maps are typically low resolution, which can be fine for day hikes, but British Ordnance Survey or USGS (US Geologic Survey) have elevation contours and are more accurate and reliable in an emergency, provided you know how to read them. These maps are available at most sporting good stores in the area that you’ll hike.
Carry a compass and know how to read it and use it with your map.
You can use some software programs to print your copy on waterproof paper if you cannot access any of the ready printed ones. A GPS device can pinpoint your location, but you should still carry a map and compass.
Put the heaviest things toward your back, and low in the bag to help keep you on balance. In general, you want to start packing with the bulkiest and the heaviest items, then stuff extra space with things like clothes and other gear.
Read this article for more information about packing your backpack properly.
Phần 3 của 3:
Planning for Safety
Lightening preparedness is a critical part of hiker safety. Learn to identify and find the appropriate shelter in the event of a lightning storm.
If you are going about 6,000 feet know how to recognized acute mountain sickness and how to manage it.
Make sure you know basic first aid for things like cuts, scraps, and broken bones.
If you are experienced, you have the opportunity to introduce a newcomer to the wonders of backpacking. If you have never been backpacking, you might want to consider going on your first trip with an experienced hiker.
It’s best if your camping partners are somewhat compatible in terms of hiking speed, distance they are willing to hike, and camping style. Some people like to travel lightly and hike long distances. Others prefer just getting out of sight of the car.
If you travel solo make sure someone knows your plans and that you have the equipment and skills to be self-sufficient.
If you are using a water filter, bring replacement parts, including replacement filters. They often clog with sediment, or just plain break.
Boiling water for at least one minute is an effective backup method, in an emergency.
Leave a note on your car, at least. This can be very helpful in the event that you don’t show back up to the car on time.
Check in at the ranger station or the Visitor’s Center before you go camping. This is an easy way to let people know how long you’re going to be in the area.
If you will be visiting an area with bears, bring a bag and rope to hang your food from a tree, or use an Ursack or bear canister, depending on local regulations.
Follow the same precautions with anything scented, including hair products, shampoo, lotions, toothpaste, and gum.
Always use the same bag for storing and hanging food and scented items, from campout to campout.
Check National Forests and Parks in the area for seasonal camping times, and required/prohibited items.
Check the USGS web site and get the Angle of Declination and know how to set your compass for that and how to read your map once set.
There are a lot of on-line resources for destinations, trails, and equipment lists, some of which are listed below.
If you are traveling abroad, know what items are prohibited to carry-on and check during flights. Although you might need a camp stove, you cannot pack fuel with you; buy the fuel at your destination.
Keep a multi-tool with you, it comes in handy.
Learn primitive fire if you’re going deep woods camping.
Pack heavier things in the center of your pack instead of the bottom.
Check for signs of wild animals such as prints or scat. If fresh scat is in the area where you plan to camp, you may want to rethink your campsite.
Backpacking may be a lot of work, but it is awesome once you do it.
You should wear clothing made of materials that keep you warm even when wet, such as wool and fleece (especially in, but not limited to, cold environments). Avoid cotton. If you become stuck in wet weather, this may be the factor that saves your life.
Choose your campsite carefully. Look overhead for dead branches that might fall on your tent. Check the ground for evidence of prior flooding. If thunderstorms are in the forecast, avoid exposed ridges.
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